Desire, Demand and Need
Desire, Demand and Need
(Or the relation taking care of tidy)
" The topic, therefore, one doesn't speak to him. That speaks of him, and it is there that he/it fears himself/itself, and this of as much more necessarily than of the only fact that that applies to him, he/it disappears like topic under meaning it that he/it becomes, he/it was not absolutely anything. "
J. Lacan, Written, Doorstep, p. 835
1) the notion of topic
What is a topic?
For the big dictionary of the Psychology Larousse, the topic is " un being wanting, submitted to the symbolic and constrained law to pass by the speech to establish his/her/its truth,: the topic in psychoanalysis, is the topic of the desire that S. Freud discovered in the thoughtless person. This topic of the desire is an effect of the immersion of the small of man in the language. It is necessary to distinguish it so much the biologic individual therefore that of the topic of the understanding. It is not the me Freudian (opposite to the that and to the superego). It is not for as much the me of the grammar. Effect of the language, he/it is not an element of it: him " Ex-siste " (is held out) at the cost of a loss, the castration. "
Ainsi, therefore, for Lacan, the topic is divided: there is the topic of the speech on one hand, of the other the topic to the grammatical sense. This idea is already present at S. Freud with the denial.
Ainsi when one says " Je won't say you that.. ", the enunciation immediately annuls the statement.
Le I of the enunciation am not the me of the statement, it is what explains us J. Lacan: " En effect, the me that express, the me of the enunciation, is not the same that the me of the statement, that means the shifter, that, in the statement, designate it. "
Le topic is then escaping, it appears in the speech, always between two meaning. From then on, how to make to succeed in finding the topic? Besides, this topic that misses is he/it absent? Decidedly no, it is what delivers us Jacques Alain Miller: " La sutures names the report of the assembly-line topic of his/her/its speech (...), he/it represents of it as the element that misses under the species of a supporter place. Because there missing, he/it is not merely absent of it. "
Mais before going further, let's come back to the constitution of this topic. We will keep the approach lacanienne and will tempt to recall the stage of the mirror briefly.
C'est in 1949 that Lacan will make its communication " Le stage of the mirror as formatter of the function of the I as her am revealed us in the experience psychanalytique ", at the time of an international convention of psychoanalysis, in Zurich.
Ce stage of the mirror comes back to an experience during which the child is going to appropriate his/her/its own body. This stage appears between 6 and 18 months, and is decomposed in three periods:
- in a first time, the child doesn't differentiate her self-image, one and other are confounded thus. Of that made, the child not making the difference, there are very undifferentiated reactions, he/it will be able to cry for example while seeing someone making itself/themselves hit.
- the second period is important with regard to the processes of identification. It is to this moment that he/it makes the difference between picture and reality.
- finally, in a last time, the child manages to recognize itself/themselves in his/her/its picture. The imaginary is present in this sense that it recognizes himself/itself the where it is not indeed.
Ce stage of the mirror allows the me to take birth; but in a same time, the child is alienated, alienated in his/her/its imaginary. Indeed, he/it succeeds in recognizing itself/themselves in a place where he/it is not indeed.
" Le desire outlines itself in the margin where the demand tears itself of the besoin. "
J. LACAN Écrits
a) Wunsch das: the desire
" Le desire of the man is the desire of the Other "
" Dans la Freudian dynamic conception, one of the poles of the conflict défensif :le unconscious desire has the tendency to come true while re-establishing, according to the laws of the primary process, the signs bound to the first experiences of satisfaction. The psychoanalysis showed, on the domain of the dream, how the desire meets in the symptoms under the shape of compromise. "
Le desire is in French a term that often returns to disparate ideas. In German, Wunsch rather has the sense of the wish (different from Lust for example).
Pour Freud, the need is not the desire. Indeed, the desire is bound to mnesic traces and find his/her/its achievement in the "hallucinatory reproduction of perceptions become the signs of these perceptions ." He/it speaks besides in this sense of Wunsherfüllung (achievement of desire to the singular).
La quote of Lacan (" Le desire of the man is the desire of the Autre ") caused quick questioning. This sentence, exit of the theory hégélienne, puts in direct hold the child in the mother's desire.
Essayer to explain the desire according to Lacan is a complex thing and is not the goal of this work. Indeed, it would be necessary to review the topology of the core, the algorithms, brief, it would be necessary to browse all l'. uvre of Lacan.
b) the demand
Si " l'hommes want because the satisfaction of his/her/its needs pass by the call addressed to another, this call makes itself demand, demand of amour ", then, the demand appears, it, like a joint of the need and the desire. In this context, the demand addressed by the patient appears like a non demand (" il is necessary that I know, or that him (or her) sache "). Only the need is processed, point the desire.
Ainsi, the patient's demand is subordinated if need be ( I am not able to plus " of it). One can also wonder about the veracity of such a demand. It is not a knowledge vrai " that is wished, it is something else. All the interest of our work consists exactly in making to a " vraie " demand lead in this sense that it supported herself/itself on a desire and no on a need. Besides, this demand she/it is not a demand of love, " aimez Me since I cannot like myself moi-même ."
c) the need
On can look for a definition of the need, one doesn't find some, except the " besoin of punition " maybe. Would this be to say that the need doesn't concern the psychanalyse ?
There is a contiguity of the need and the biologic. The need requires to be satisfied and obeys the principle of pleasure.
Freud opposed the need and the sexual impulse in Impulses and destiny of the impulses, refering to the bodily needs. For him, the need of food is opposed to the sexual impulse. The need has a real object and no an object intra psychic (as it is the case of the desire).
En so much that nursing, must we answer this " demande " based on the besoin ? Can lean on this demand to hire a " thérapeutique " reflection, to show that one is capable to hear what says itself to half-mot ?
L'exemple typical is the one of the patient hospitalized that complains of difficulties to sleep. Leaning on the need, the nurse or the physician could answer while giving a quarter of lexomil.. Passer-by has rating of the desire that can be a need to speak thus or a fear, a non expressed anguish, (facing an operation for example).
3) of a demande ?
Conceal himself well often behind the demand of numerous other things concerning a reassurance, a demand of help or again a demand of love. " Through the intermediary of the demand, the whole passes half-opens itself until the thin melts of the first childhood. To ask, the topic never made that that, it could not live that by that, and we take the continuation. "He/it is right not to answer this demand under table setting of ever to arrive to a draft of " Ce desire that is given to the other thus to fill, it is also, passions of the being, what all demand evokes beyond the need that articulates itself of it, and it is well that of which the remained topic of as much more cleanly private that the need articulated in the demand is satisfait ." Is it there the whole difficulty, how to make to speak, without answering these demandes ?
" Que the analyst, while risking to a necessarily partial and limited interpretation, give to hear to analyzing it that he/it is not depository of a knowledge, but competent on a method, which founds like research and non possession of a savoir ."
Lors of the interviews, the patient approves to say some things, even if he sometimes wonders why he comes.. It is it the idea of the Inferred Topic to Know of which speaks to us Lacan. He/it approves then to deliver his/her/its anguish, his/her/its experiences of the illness, brief to give the sense to his/her/its arrival. He/it becomes aware to that moment that it is not insignificant that he/it presents himself/itself to this precise moment of his/her/its existence, sometimes same he/it makes some ties with his/her/its history, that the one here either real or imaginaire ; he/it approves this area of speech where he/it doubts, where he/it wonders, where he/it becomes aware of some facts.
Bien often start itself a demand founded on the desire where the patient expresses the reason of his/her/its arrival, express his/her/its disarray and his/her/its suffering, is claimant of soins ; and, has contrario, is sometimes afraid to be " guéri ", because to be healed, it lose the care.
Face to a demand, he/it is always right not to answer with readiness, but to look for the sense of the demand, that is to say the hidden, the non says, permitting an exchange thus; But facing the problems of time and has a too limited formation as sometimes, the answer can be made on the manifest demand, ignoring latent demand and not permitting a draft of processed of the desire, and it is well sad.